This guide discusses Python procedures.
In Python a function is a named block of code that can perform a reusable action. This allows Python code to be broken down into functional, reusable blocks of code.
There are many modules available for Python. These modules contain a great number of pre-defined procedures that can be very useful. There are libraries that help with Date, Time, Math, etc.
You can use any Python file as a module by using the import statement. Once imported all the procedures in the import are available. The standard syntax for importing is:
To import more the one module, use commas to separate module names:
import rhinoscriptsyntax, time, math
To access procedures in imported modeles, prefix the function with the imported model name, seperated by a period (.):
import time print (time.strftime("%H:%M:%S")) #strftime is a proccedure in the time module.
import statement can also be used to change the reference name of the incoming module. Use this function to make module names shorter to use and easier to read in the code. A very common example of this is how we normally will shorted the
rhinoscriptsyntax module to
rs for convenience:
import rhinoscriptsyntax as rs rs.AddPoint (1, 2, 3) # The Rhinoscriptsyntax module is accessed throught 'rs' abreviation.
It is also possible to import only a portion of a module. In the following case, only certain namespaces are imported from the larger
from System.IO import Path, File, FileInfo, FileAttributes
The imported modules above are referenced by using
FileAttributes as namespaces.
There are many modules available for Python. Some of the most useful to Rhino Python are:
- Rhinoceros modules
- rhinoscriptsyntax - The basic rhino library of procedures
- rhino -
- String Services
- string — Common string operations
- StringIO — Read and write strings as files
- fpformat — Floating point conversions
- Date and Time
- datetime — Basic date and time types
- time — Time access and conversions
- Numeric and Mathematical Modules
- math — Mathematical functions
- fractions — Rational numbers
- random — Generate pseudo-random numbers
- File and Directory Access
- System.IO — Common pathname manipulations
- tempfile — Generate temporary files and directories
- csv — CSV File Reading and Writing
A complete list of predefined modules in Python, see the Python Standard Library modules
Function is a series of Python statements begins by a
def, followed by the function name and enclosed in parenthesis. A Function may or may not return a value. A Function procedure can take arguments (constants, variables, or expressions that are passed by a calling procedure). If a Function procedure has no arguments, its
def statement should include an empty set of parentheses
(). Parameters can also be defined within the parenthesis. The parenthesis are followed by a colon (:) to end the first line.
The end of the function is marked by the loss of whitespace in the next line of the code (ending the code block). It is common practice to use a
return statement followed by the argument to return a value. You may also finish a function with a return statement and a simple colon (;).
In the following example, the Celsius
def calculates degrees Celsius from degrees Fahrenheit. When the def is called from the
ConvertTemp def procedure, a variable containing the argument value is passed to the def. The result of the calculation is returned to the calling procedure and displayed in a message box.
def Celsius(fDegrees): _Celsius = (fDegrees - 32) * 5 / 9 return _Celsius; # Use this code to call the Celsius function temp = raw_input("Please enter the temperature in degrees F.", 1) MsgBox "The temperature is " & Celsius(temp) & " degrees C."
Getting Data In and Out
Each piece of data is passed into your procedures using an argument. Arguments serve as placeholders for the data you want to pass into your procedure. You can name your arguments any valid variable name. When you create a procedure parentheses must be included after the name of the procedure. Any arguments are placed inside these parentheses, separated by spaces. For example, in the following example,
fDegrees is a placeholder for the value being passed into the Celsius function for conversion.
Function Celsius(fDegrees) _Celsius = (fDegrees - 32) * 5 / 9 return _Celsius;
To call a procedure from another procedure, type the name of the procedure along with values for any required arguments, each separated by a space.
The function will returns a single value based on its final
return statement. A return statement with a variable name, followed by a semicolon (;) returns the reference to that variable. A return statement with simply a semicolon (;) returns nothing. The return statement is not required to end a procedure.
Assigning a Function to a Variable
Python allows a variable to contain a function.